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As well as physiological needs for survival -- air to breathe, food and drink, warmth, shelter and protection from predators -- there are psychological drives that shape our behaviour. The physiologist Walter Cannon explained this in terms of the body's need to find a stable balance, so that we are driven to eat, for example, by the physical needs of an empty stomach, an idea refined by psychologist Clark Hull in his 1943 'drive reduction theory' -- that all our behaviour is to satisfy the drives caused by our primary needs.
Other psychologists recognised that we have more than simply physiological needs. Our behaviour is complex, and is shaped by multiple psychological drives to satisfy both social and cognitive needs. In 1943, Abraham Maslow identified a hierarchy of human needs, ranging from the basic physical needs of deficiency and survival, through those of security, and the need for friendship, family and intimacy, to a need for esteem and achievement.