Finally, I've made the last episode of articles although the study of articles for most of the students just sets off. There is no shortcut to mastering articles unless learners pay close attention to how they should be applied in reality.
Here I'd like to share an example from The Economist:
America has passed a grim milestone: 100,000 deaths from a novel coronavirus that began to spread half a year and half a world away. Many Americans think their president has handled the epidemic disastrously, that their country has been hit uniquely hard and that there is a simple causal relationship between the two. The 100,000, which does not include excess deaths mistakenly attributed to other causes, is higher than any other country's. It has routinely been compared with the 60,000 American casualties in the Vietnam war. A Trump Death Clock in Times Square purports to show how many lives the president's ineptitude has cost: as we went to press it stood at 60,262. Yet this widespread conviction that America has failed because of Donald Trump is not supported by the numbers. Or, at least, not yet.
As you can see, how many definite or indefinite articles are used in the paragraph above? Indeed, a lot!
a grim milestone, a novel coronavirus, half a year, half a world, the epidemic, the two, the 60,000 American casualties, the Vietnam war, A Trump Death Clock, the president's ineptitude, the numbers.
I think the most efficient way of learning articles is to ask yourself whether you can work out why those examples above use definite or indefinite articles.
If not, please let us know what hampers your progress.